Redshift is commonly thought to arise from recessional accelleration and is used to measure the distance of galaxies, yet some quasars with high redshift values seem to be physically connected to lower-redshift galaxies, which begs the question: do we really understand what causes redshift? Halton "Chip" Arp was an American astronomer known for his Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. Arp was also a critic of the Big Bang theory, advocating a non-standard cosmology incorporating intrinsic redshift as a measure of age rather than distance.