For many years, nerve impulses have been understood in terms of action potentials moving along nerves, with the whole system depending on ion pumps and ion channels. Muscle contraction has been understood in terms of molecular bridges between actin and myosin molecules. But research on structured water by Gerald Pollack and his group at Washington State University has revealed that there are many surprising properties of water and gels that shed new light on both nerve impulses, muscle contraction and vesicle secretion by cells.

Many of the phenomena previously attributed to ion pumps, channels and molecular mechanisms can be explained more simply and elegantly in terms of phase transitions in gels and structured water. Many aspects of cell biology may need to be reinterpreted radically. For an in depth discussion of structured water see G.H. Pollack The Fourth Phase of Water, and for the application of this new understanding to cell biology see G. H. Pollack, Cells, Gels and The Engines of Life: A New, Unifying Approach to Cell Function.

Gerald Pollack's Talk on Electrically Structured Water and the Body at the EU 2013 Conference